Glossary of Consumer RuleML 1.02

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Authors: Tara Athan, Adrian Paschke, Harold Boley

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RuleML Families : Specification of RuleML 1.02

Prerequisites: None, Level: Semi-formal

Consumer RuleML : Specification of Consumer RuleML

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Primer : Introduction to the RuleML Language

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Relax NG Schemas : Machine-readable grammar in the Relax NG language

Prerequisites: Relax NG, Level: Formal

XSD Schemas : Machine-readable schemas in XSD

Prerequisites: XSD, Level: Formal

Normalizer : Stylesheet for transforming into the normal-form serialization

Prerequisites: XSLT, Level: Formal

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Examples : Illustrative Instances of the Version 1.02 Language

Prerequisites: Primer, Level: Informative

Glossary : Definitions of Elements and Attributes

Prerequisites: Primer, Level: Semi-formal

Content Models : Simplified XML Element and Attribute Definitions

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Schema Docs : Diagrammatic Presentation of Content Models

Prerequisites: Primer, Level: Semi-formal

OO jDREW : Reference Implementation of RuleML Operational Semantics

Prerequisites: Naf Hornlog RuleML, Level: Formal

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This version: consumer.ruleml.org/1.02/glossary/

Latest version: consumer.ruleml.org/glossary/

Version history:
Date Version
2015-10-12 -

Version 1.02 Wiki


This glossary describes (informatively) every XML element and attribute of Consumer RuleML as of version 1.02. The description of each element includes a listing of attributes which may be allowed on it, although not all attributes may be available in some sublanguages. Each entry also contains links to detail frames within "schema doc" documentation of the normative lenient syntax in the normalized serialization.

Consumer RuleML syntax uses Node elements (capitalized, as in <Rule>) in the http://ruleml.org/spec namespace to indicate formulas and terms, and edge elements (uncapitalized, as in <if>) in that same namespace to connect Node elements. The name of a RuleML element is generally not sufficient to specify its intended semantics, and this important feature of RuleML is useful for expressing ambiguity, such as that arising from natural language. Attributes (unqualified) may be used to disambiguate the semantics, e.g. @style, or to provide additional syntactic information, e.g. @type,.

All elements may use the key-keyref mechanism for distributed syntactic definitions (see Key-KeyRef).

1 <After>

Functional term denoting a time (<Time>), spatial entity (<Spatial>) or interval (<Interval>) which follows after another time, spatial entity, or interval i.e. "Y after X" or "after X". The duration, distance or interval length is specified in the first argument X, and the optional reference point in the second position. The result is relative (one argument) or absolute (two arguments), e.g. "after 2 days" (relative), "2 days after X" (absolute).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: After

2 <And>

Compound Truth-valued Formula resulting from the application of a polyadic logical connective for Conjunction to zero or more Truth-valued Formulas (called the conjuncts).
  • In the case of one conjunct, <And>F</And> should be logically equivalent to F for any Truth-valued Formula F.
  • The empty conjunction <And/> should be entailed by any theory.
  • Semantic profiles for languages that include RuleML's <And> element should provide "conjunction-like" semantics for it. The semantics may depend on the order of arguments, because the conjuncts may be ordered (an @index attribute is optional on the formula edges). The semantics of <And> should support a conjunction elimination (i.e. simplification) rule of deduction when Conjunctions may appear in the conclusion of an Implication or Rule. The semantics of <And> should support a conjunction introduction rule of deduction when Conjunctions may appear in the premise of an Implication or Rule.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: And

3 <Any>

Functional term denoting a time (<Time>) or spatial entity (<Spatial>) which repeats any list of [time or spatial], i.e. "any X1,..Xn", e.g. "any Saturday and Sunday". </span>
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: Any

4 <arg>

Edge containing a term child, used for the positional arguments of a logical atom (<Atom>), functional expression (<Expr>) as well as in interval (<Interval>), spatial (<Spatial>), and temporal (<Time>) atoms and terms.
Attributes: @index (required), @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: arg in Atom or Expr, arg in Interval, arg in Spatial, arg in Time

5 <Atom>

Simple truth-valued formula that is a logical atom, i.e. an expression formed from a predicate (or relation) applied to a collection of operands. The relation (<Rel>) is followed by a sequence of zero or more positional arguments (<arg>). Optional user-defined slots (<slot>) are also permitted. Rest variables -- <repo> (positional) and <resl> (slotted) -- are also permitted. For example, one way to formalize "John is the father of a daughter, Mary and a son, Bill":
 <Atom>
   <Rel>is father of</Rel>
   <Ind>John</Ind>
   <slot><Ind>daughter</Ind><Ind>Mary</Ind></slot>
   <slot><Ind>son</Ind><Ind>Bill</Ind></slot>
 </Atom>
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Atom


6 @card

Attribute optionally specifying a <slot>'s cardinality.
See schema docs: card

7 <Before>

Functional term denoting a time (<Time>), spatial entity (<Spatial>) or interval (<Interval>) which is before another time, spatial entity, or interval i.e. "Y before X" or "before X". The duration, distance or interval length is specified in the first argument X, and the optional reference point in the second position. The result is relative (one argument) or absolute (two arguments), e.g. "before 2 days" (relative), "2 days before X" (absolute).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: Before

8 @closure

Attribute indicating how the contained free variables are quantified. Predefined values are "universal" and "existential", while arbitrary quantification operators (e.g. numerical quantification, such as unique existential quantification - there is one and only one) can be referenced as an IRI.
See schema docs: closure

9 <content>

Edge used for an extensible content argument, which acts as an syntactic extension point to embed xs:any XML code in the argument. It can be used to extend the content of <Time>, <Spatial>, <Interval>.
Attributes: @index (required), @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: content in Interval, content in Spatial, content in Time

10 <Data>

Simple term denoting a fixed character sequence (like XML PCDATA and RDF literals). It may be optionally associated with an XML Schema built-in datatype using the xsi:type attribute. For example:
<Data xsi:type="xs:dateTime">2002-10-10T17:00:00Z</Data>
is valid (according to the dateTime datatype), but the following is not:
<Data xsi:type="xs:dateTime">tomorrow</Data>
Note, however, that <Data>tomorrow</Data> is valid because no built-in datatype is given and that XML is also permissible, e.g.
<Data>
  <ex:object>
   <ex:id>115897</ex:id>
   <ex:owner>John Doe</ex:owner>
  </ex:object>
</Data>
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @xsi:type
See schema docs: Data

11 <declare>

Edge used for variables (<Var>) declared within a quantifier (<Forall> or <Exists>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: declare

12 <degree>

Edge containing a data value denoting an uncertainty value (between 0.0 and 1.0 or qualitatively expressed) of a formula.[1]
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: degree

13 <During>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a basic Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X during Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the startpoint of X is greater than the startpoint of Y, and the endpoint of X is less than the endpoint of Y.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: During

14 <Equal>

Simple truth-valued formula for a generic equation containing a left and a right term, each of which may be optionally surrounded by a left (<left>) or a right (<right>) edge, resp. For example, "factorial(0)=1" may be equivalently represented in the following two ways:
Compact serialization
<Equal>
  <Expr>
    <Fun>factorial</Fun>
    <Data xsi:type="xs:int">0</Data>
  </Expr>
  <Data xsi:type="xs:int">1</Data>
</Equal
Normalized serialization
<Equal>
  <left>
    <Expr>
      <Fun>factorial</Fun>
      <Data xsi:type="xs:int">0</Data>
    </Expr>
  </left>
  <right>
    <Data xsi:type="xs:int">1</Data>
  <right>
</Equal
In the case that the arguments are intervals, it is interpreted as an application of the basic Allen interval operator of equality, indicating equality of both start and end points.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Equal

15 <Equivalent>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a binary logical connective of equivalence, which is "syntactic sugar" for a pair of conjoined converse implication rules (<Implies>). It contains a pair of formulas (optionally surrounded by <torso> edges). For example, "A person owning an object is equivalent to an object belonging to a person":
<Equivalent>
  <torso>
    <Atom>
      <Rel>own</Rel>
      <Var>person</Var>
      <Var>object</Var>
    </Atom>
  </torso>
  <torso>
    <Atom>
      <Rel>belongs</Rel>
      <Var>object</Var>
      <Var>person</Var>
    </Atom>
  </torso>
</Equivalent>
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Equivalent

16 <Every>

Functional term denoting a time (<Time>) or spatial entity (<Spatial>) which repeats every time or spatial entity, i.e. "every X", e.g. "every Monday", "every 2 meters".
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: Every

17 <Exists>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of an existential quantifier. It contains one or more bound variables (<Var>), each optionally surrounded by a <declare> edge, and a logical formula (optionally surrounded by a <formula> edge).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Exists

18 <Expr>

Functional term of the form "f(...)" where f is a function name. The function name (<Fun>) is followed by a sequence of zero or more arguments (<arg>). Optional user-defined slots (<slot>) are also permitted, just like an atom (<Atom>). Rest variables (<repo> and <resl>) are also permitted.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: Expr

19 <Finishes>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a basic Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X finishes Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the startpoint of X is greater than the startpoint of Y, and the endpoint of X is equal to the endpoint of Y.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Finishes

20 <Forall>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of an existential quantifier. It contains one or more bound variables (<Var>), each optionally surrounded by a <declare> edge, and a logical formula (optionally surrounded by a <formula> edge).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Forall

21 <formula>

Edge for the body or arguments of compound formulas, including modal formulas (<Operation>) and those obtained from the application of specific (e.g. And) and generic logical Connectives (Negation Operation).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: formula

22 <Fun>

Name of a function, used as the operator (<op>) of a functional expression ( <Expr>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @iri @type
See schema docs: Fun

23 <if>

Edge for the "if" part of an implication (<Implies>) or rule (<Rule>) containing the premise(s), also known as the "antecedent" or "body" of the rule.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: if in Implies, if in Rule

24 <Implies>

Compound truth-valued formula that results from the application of a binary logical connective of implication. One formula argument is called the premise (indicated by an <if> edge) and the other is called the conclusion ( indicated by a <then> edge). For example, "The discount for a customer buying a product is 5.0 percent if the customer is premium and the product is regular":
<Implies>
  <if>
    <And>
      <formula> 
        <Atom>
          <op><Rel>premium</Rel></op>
          <arg index="1"><Var>customer</Var></arg>
        </Atom>
      </formula>
      <formula> 
        <Atom>
          <op><Rel>regular</Rel></op>
          <arg index="1"><Var>product</Var></arg>
        </Atom>
      </formula>
    </And>
  </if>
  <then>
    <Atom>
      <op><Rel>discount</Rel></op>
      <then><Var>customer</Var></then>
      <arg index="1"><Var>product</Var></arg>
      <arg index="2"><Ind>5.0 percent</Ind></arg>
    </Atom>
  </then>
</Implies>
The edge elements <if> and <then> may be skipped, in which case the premise comes first followed by the conclusion as suggested by the element name 'Implies' (since the if of a rule implies the 'then', not vice versa). Using the same example:
<Implies>
  <And>
    <Atom>
      <Rel>premium</Rel>
      <Var>customer</Var>
    </Atom>
    <Atom>
      <Rel>regular</Rel>
      <Var>product</Var>
    </Atom>
  </And>
  <Atom>
    <Rel>discount</Rel>
    <Var>customer</Var>
    <Var>product</Var>
    <Ind>5.0 percent</Ind>
  </Atom>
</Implies>
The semantics should support an implication elimination (i.e. modus ponens) rule of deduction.
Attributes: :Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style @material
See schema docs: Implies

25 <Ind>

Simple term that is an individual constant, as in predicate logic, whose symbol is given by
  • the IRI that is value of the @iri attribute, if present
  • the text content, if the @iri attribute is not present
  • a predefined null value, if neither @iri or content is present
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @iri @type
See schema docs: Ind

26 @index

Required attribute for specifying the position of a positional argument (see <arg>) within an atomic formula or functional term.
See schema docs: index in arg

27 <Interval>

Specialized functional term or atomic truth-valued formula for an explicit interval construct, accepting at most two positional arguments, which should be used as follows:
  • As a term, denotes a temporal, spatial or other interval, e.g. from a linear or periodic dimension.
  • As a formula, expresses sentences about a temporal, spatial or other interval.
The optional @type is used for disambiguation. Predefined signatures in the RuleML Metamodel are: "EmptyInterval", "DegeneratedInterval", "LeftClosedRightOpenInterval", "LeftOpenRightClosedInterval, "LeftOpenInterval, "LeftClosedInterval, "RightClosedInterval", "RightOpenInterval".
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style @type
See schema docs: Interval

28 @iri

Optional attribute of a number of elements (e.g. <Ind>, <Rel>, and <Fun>), used to indicate a symbol that is an IRI.
See schema docs: iri in Fun and similar

29 @key

Attribute used to define an unique key as Compact URI (Curie) (with mappings into IRIs by the @prefix attribute) or absolute Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) on all <RuleML> Nodes and edges which can be referenced by the corresponding @keyref attribute.
It uses the XML Schema key-keyref approach which allows XML tools to validate and process the defined keys and their keyref references. The key-keyref pair connects and joins distributed and modularized knowledge definitions within a logical <RuleML> knowledge base, where @key is the unique identifier key and @keyref is a key reference. This can be used e.g., to modularize the knowledge base, separate interface/template/pattern definition from the implementation/instantiation, and in general avoid repeated knowledge definitions by referencing already defined knowledge in the knowledge base.
It is possible to distribute conjoint knowledge definitions in one <RuleML> document or over multiple physical <RuleML> documents which can be included to the logical knowledge base with XML Inclusions (XInclude). The XML processor then validates uniqueness of keys and correctness of keyref links. The following example shows the definition of a rule template (<if> premise only) in a <Rule> which has the key "rule-template". This rule template is referenced by the separately defined <Rule> implementation using keyref="rule-template".
Rule Template Definition
<Rule key="rule-template"> 
  <if>    
     	<Atom>
    		<op><Rel>likes</Rel></op>
		<arg><Var>John</Var></arg> 
		<arg><Var>X</Var> </arg>
	</Atom>
  </if>    
</Rule>
Rule Implementation Definition
<Rule keyref="rule-template">
  <then>
         <Atom>
              <op><Rel>likes</Rel></op>
              <arg><Ind>John</Ind></arg>
              <arg><Var>X</Var></arg>
         </Atom>
  </then>
</Rule>


See schema docs: key key.value

30 @keyref

Attribute used to reference corresponding knowledge which is identified in a RuleML knowledge base by its unique @key.
The corresponding key must be in the same document, either explicitly or through XInclude resolution.
The semantics of key-keyref, e.g. in the case of conflict resolution between local and referenced attributes or children, may be specified using the @style attribute.
See schema docs: keyref

31 <left>

Edge for the left-hand side of an equation (<Equal>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: left

32 @material

Semantic variant attribute indicating whether a rule (<Rule> or <Implies>) is material. Allowed values are enumerated values "yes" and "no", as well as a CURIE or IRI. The semantics indicated by the enumerated values should be defined by the effective semantic profile, while the semantics indicated by a CURIE or IRI value should be defined in the document that is dereferencable from the (resolved) IRI. If multiple values of the @material attribute appear in the same document, then the semantic profile should be compatible with all such values. For example, relevance logics[2] may be defined that support material implication (A => B) as syntactic sugar for (~A or B)
<Equivalent  style="ex:relevance">
  <Implies material="yes">
    <if><Atom><Rel>A</Rel></Atom></if>
    <then><Atom><Rel>B</Rel</Atom></then>
  </Implies>
  <Or>
   <Neg><Atom><Rel>A</Rel></Atom></Neg>
   <Atom><Rel>B</Rel</Atom>
  </Or>
</Equivalent>
and also support relevance implication.
<Neg style="ex:relevance">
  <Equivalent>
    <Implies material="no">
      <if><Atom><Rel>A</Rel></Atom></if>
      <then><Atom><Rel>B</Rel</Atom></then>
    </Implies>
    <Or>
      <Neg><Atom><Rel>A</Rel></Atom></Neg>
      <Atom><Rel>B</Rel</Atom>
    </Or>
  </Equivalent>
</Neg>

If the syntactic scope of the semantic profile allows the @material to be absent, then the semantic profile should specify to which value this corresponds (see Semantic Variant Attributes).

See schema docs: material

33 <Meets>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a basic Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X meets Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the endpoint of X is equal to the startpoint of Y.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Meets

34 <Naf>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a logical connective of weak negation, with semantics as specified by the @style attribute. The negated formula may be optionally surrounded by a <weak> edge element.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Naf

35 <Neg>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a logical connective of classical negation to a truth-valued formula (i.e. "strong" negation). The negated formula may be optionally surrounded by a <strong> role.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Neg

36 <Negation>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a generic (i.e. strong or weak) negation connective to a truth-valued formula (with the <formula> role possibly omitted). It either acts as a polymorphic negation which is interpreted according to the intended semantic profile or the sort is explicitly defined by the optional @type attribute, e.g. using predefined negation types from the RuleML Metamodel.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style @type
See schema docs: Negation

37 <oid>

Edge for the optional label for the object of a slotted atom. Note that <oid>s are not required to be unique within a document or theory.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: oid

38 <op>

Edge for an operator, containing either a relation (<Rel>) of an atom (<Atom>) or a function name (<Fun>) of a (<Expr>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: op in Atom and op in Expr

39 <Operation>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of an operator to truth-valued formulas and/or terms, e.g. a logical connective, modal operator, or algebra operator. The sort (i.e. signature) of operator to be used in the operation can be referenced using the @type attribute, while the semantics is specified with the @style attribute.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style @type
See schema docs: Operation

40 <Or>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a polyadic logical connective for disjunction to zero or more truth-valued formulas (called the disjuncts).
  • In the case of one disjunct, <Or>F</Or> is equivalent to F for any formula F.
  • In the case of zero disjuncts, <Or/> is always false.
  • Semantic profiles must provide "disjunction-like" semantics to <Or>. The interpretation may depend on the order of arguments, because the disjuncts are ordered (an @index attribute is required in the formula edges). The semantics of <Or> should support an disjunction elimination (i.e. "proof by cases") rule of deduction.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Or

41 <Overlaps>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a basic Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X overlaps Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the startpoint of X is less than the startpoint of Y, and the endpoint of X is less than the endpoint of Y.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Overlaps

42 <Plex>

Functional term that is a collection of (ordered) arguments (optionally enclosed by <arg>) and/or (unordered) user-defined slots (<slot>), analogous to an expression (<Expr>) with the uninterpreted (constructor) function (equivalent to having a system-specified constructor <Fun>Plex</Fun>) applied to the same arguments. Rest variables (<repo> and <resl>) are also permitted. For example:
<Plex>
  <Var>title</Var>
  <Var>author</Var>
  <Var>table of contents</Var>
  <Var>chapters</Var>
</Plex>
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: Plex in arg, Plex in repo, Plex in resl

43 <Precedes>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a basic Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X precedes Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the endpoint of X is less than the startpoint of Y.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Precedes

44 <Rel>

Name of a relation, i.e. a logical predicate, of an atom (<Atom>). It is optionally surrounded by an operator (<op>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @iri @type
See schema docs: Rel

45 <repo>

Edge for a positional rest variable used in atomic formulas and functional terms.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: repo

46 <resl>

Edge for a slotted rest variable used in atomic formulas and functional terms.
See schema docs: resl

47 <right>

Edge for the right-hand side of an equation (<Equal>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: right

48 <Rule>

Formula for a generic rule. An <Implies> rule is a shortcut notation for <Rule style="rs:reasoning"> with <if>-<then> parts.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style @material
See schema docs: Rule

49 <Skolem>

Simple term that is a skolem individual constant.[3]
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @type
See schema docs: Skolem

50 <slot>

Element for a user-defined slot containing a name (first position) and a filler (second position), used in atomic formulas and functional terms. For example:
<slot>
  <Ind>color</Ind>
  <Ind>blue</Ind>
</slot>
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @card
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: slot

51 <Spatial>

Specialized functional term or atomic truth-valued formula for an explicit generic spatial construct. The optional @type attribute defines the type of the spatial.
A spatial can be defined:
  • with positional arguments (with <arg>)
  • with unpositional slots (with <slot>)
  • by a spatial expression function (with <Expr>)
  • as a frame object (with <oid> and <slot>)
  • by <content>, which acts as an extension point to embed one of the many existing XML serializations of times
  • by external reference using the @type and @style attributes
  • by internal reference using the @key @keyref attributes on existing spatial definitions
  • by an absolute or relative spatial algebra operator (<After>, <Before>, <Every>, <Any>, <Timer>, <Operation>)
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style @type
See schema docs: Spatial

52 <strong>

Edge used for the body of classical negation (<Neg>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: strong

53 @style

Attribute for referring to a predefined or user-defined semantic profile or supported set of entailments (partially) defining the intended semantics. Predefined semantic profiles are indicated by CURIEs or IRIs in the http://ruleml.org/profiles/ namespace, predefined sets are indicated by CURIEs or IRIs in the http://ruleml.org/entailments/ namespace, and user-defined semantic profiles are indicated by CURIEs or IRIs in namespaces that do not use the domain "ruleml.org" or any of its subdomains. Collectively, profiles and entailment sets are called semantic styles, or simply styles if the context is clear.
  • A Node without a style attribute inherits the style of its parent Node.
  • A Node with one or more semantic variant attributes is interpreted according to a modification of its semantic style per the specification of the semantic variant attribute values. However, the semantic style of the Node is not modified, so that its descendants may inherit the unmodified style.
  • A RuleML document with no style attributes has ambiguous semantics. This corresponds to a supported set of entailments that includes only reflexive entailments (i.e every theory entails itself).
  • A RuleML document should reference only semantic styles that are compatible with each other. The style definitions should specify the nature of their compatibility and the mechanism for determining entailments for theories with multiple compatible styles. See the section Predefined Semantic Styles in the Specification of Consumer RuleML 1.02 for further details.
See schema docs: style

54 <Succeeds>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X succeeds Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the endpoint of X is greater than the endpoint of Y. The converse of <Precedes>.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Succeeds

55 <Starts>

Compound truth-valued formula resulting from the application of a basic Allen interval algebra operator to two intervals (<Interval>), here "X starts Y", e.g. if X and Y are finite, indicating the startpoint of X is equal to the endpoint of Y and endpoint of X is less than the endpoint of Y.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @closure @style
See schema docs: Starts

56 <then>

Edge for the "then" part of rules (<Rule>), including implication rules (<Implies>), that contains the conclusion, also known as the "consequent" or "head" of the rule.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: then in Implies, then in Rule

57 <Time>

Specialized functional term or atomic truth-valued formula for an explicit generic time construct. A time can be defined:
  • with positional arguments (with <arg>)
  • with unpositional slots (with <slot>)
  • by a time expression function (with <Expr>)
  • as a frame object (with <oid> and <slot>)
  • by <content>, which acts as an extension point to embed one of the many existing XML serializations of times
  • by external reference using the @type and @style attributes
  • by internal reference using the @key @keyref attributes on existing time definitions
  • by an absolute or relative time algebra operator (<After>, <Before>, <Every>, <Any>, <Timer>, <Operation>)

The optional @type attribute defines the type of the time, e.g. the RuleML Metamodel predefines "TimeInstant" (linear continuous time model with points in time called time instants) or "TimePoint" and "TimeInterval" (discrete time interval model with time points and time intervals). The default time semantics is a discrete time model. A time can be defined absolute or relative.

Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style @type
See schema docs: Time

58 <Timer>

Functional term denoting a time (<Time>) or spatial entity (<Spatial>) which is described by a recurring time or space counter. A timer is a syntactic shortcut for "After X Every Y", e.g. "after 1 hour every minute" (recurring timer).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @style
See schema docs: Timer

59 <torso>

Edge used for both arguments in an equivalence formula (<Equivalent>) combining the asymmetric <then> and <if>.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: torso

60 @type

Attribute for optionally specifying a type (or sort) of a simple term or the signature of a functional or relational operator. See the oojdrew.xml instance for an example of the usage of @type.
See schema docs: type on Expr and similar

61 <Var>

Simple term that is a logical variable, as in logic programming or predicate logic.
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id @type
See schema docs: Var

62 <weak>

Edge used for the negated formula of any kind of weak negation (negation as failure) (<Naf>).
Attributes: @key @keyRef @xml:base @xml:id
See schema docs: weak

63 References

  1. http://image.ntua.gr/FuzzyRuleML Fuzzy RuleML
  2. Relevance Logic http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-relevance/
  3. http://ruleml.org/posl/poslintweb-talk.pdf Integrating Positional and Slotted Knowledge on the Semantic Web slides